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Britain's EU Journey #2: When De Gaulle said 'non' twice Tuesday, 21 January 2020
LONDON (AP) — Britain officially leaves the European Union on Jan. 31 after a debilitating political period that has bitterly divided the nation since the 2016 Brexit referendum.

Difficult negotiations setting out the new relationship between Britain and its European neighbors will continue throughout 2020.

This series of stories chronicles Britain’s tortured relationship with Europe from the post-World War II years to the present.


Winston Churchill’s call in 1946 for a “United States of Europe or whatever name or form it may take” started taking shape swiftly.

In 1952, the European Coal and Steel Community was founded. Its intention was to integrate the coal and steel industries of Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and what was then West Germany.

For Britain, imperial considerations still reigned supreme. It would stay out of the subsequent formation five years later of the European Economic Community, the precursor of the European Union, in 1957. The Treaty of Rome, which created the EEC, had grander ambitions, the establishment of a customs union and a single market for capital, goods, labor and services as part of a grand plan to rid Europe of war.

With the British empire in its death throes and the British economy ailing — certainly when compared to the postwar boom taking place in large parts of the EEC, particularly in West Germany — it wasn’t long before a consensus emerged within political circles in London that Britain had “missed the bus.”

The Conservative government of Prime Minister Harold Macmillan pushed for British membership in the EEC, but his ambition was thwarted by French President Charles de Gaulle. After de Gaulle vetoed Britain’s first bid to join in 1963, Macmillan was so distraught he confided in...

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