Russia will miss events iincluding the next summer and winter Olympics and the 2022 soccer World Cup, for tampering with doping tests.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) executive committee in Switzerland acted after concluding that Moscow had planted fake evidence and deleted files linked to positive doping tests in laboratory data that could have helped identify drug cheats.
"For too long, Russian doping has detracted from clean sport," WADA president Craig Reedie said.
"The blatant breach by the Russian authorities of RUSADA's reinstatement conditions...demanded a robust response.
That is exactly what has been delivered today," he said in a statement.
The impact of the unanimous decision was felt immediately, with WADA confirming that the Russian national team cannot take part in the 2022 World Cup in Qatar under the Russian flag and can only participate as neutrals.